The foot is a complex structure of 26 bones, 33 joints and over 100 muscles, tendons and ligaments with a network of veins, arteries and nerves.
The rearfoot consists of the Calcaneus and Talus that nestles inbetween the Tibia and Fibula. The Talus has the ability to move in three directions at once, this is referred to as tri-planar motion. The Talus sits on top of the calcaneus in what is referred to as the Sub-Talar Joint. This Joint has major importance in many of the problems that exist in the foot.
The Midfoot consists of the Navicular, Cuboid and three Cuneiform bones. These bones form part of the Mid-Tarsal Joint has its own range of motion in tandem with the Metatarsal bones. It forms part of the arch that has the ability to sag a little allowing shock absorption.
When the Mid-Tarsal Joint unlocks the 1st and 5th Rays become hypermobile leading to them moving upwards. When this happens excessively, one can get the “Dropped Metatarsal Heads” effect.
The toes consist of the Hallux or Big toe with two bones then the lesser toes with three Phalanges each.
The 1st Metatarsal bone has two little extra bones underneath called Sesamoid bones.